I work in the defense industry, and we definitely employ people who have studied astronomy / astrophysics / space science. In fact, three of the eighty research staff members in my division are astronomers.
The most useful aspects of my astronomical training were:
- Data analysis of a wide variety of different observations (radio, optical, X-ray, IR)
- Creating and giving presentations
- Writing scientific papers
- Writing observing proposals
- Teaching science to non-scientists
- Writing computer programs for data reduction and analysis