We have a large number of astronomers employed outside of academia. In fact, I set up a networking page where non-traditionally employed astronomers can swap information etc.
I have a PhD in astronomy and am now working as the assoc. exec. officer for policy programs. I do our Government relations work and career services as well as administer grants.
Most important is the ability to prioritize and to be able to look at a set of facts and make decisions based on the facts (sometimes more facts, sometimes less). The ability to simply _begin_ something with no clear idea of where things will lead, common in the sciences, is very helpful.
I also read the paper every day (even in grad school) and followed news events. This proved to be an unusual characteristic among astronomers and helped me land my current job.